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Spain is a country with profound historical roots in Europe. Its identity and unique idiosyncrasies have been forged by a variety of phenomena, such as the discovery of the Americas and its neutral position during the two world wars. At the same time, however, there are strong parallels between Spanish history and the history of other European countries; although it never renounced its diversity, Spain emerged as a unified state at a very early stage and played a crucial role in some of the most brilliant episodes in modern European history.
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Crusading within Europe itself had continued to mutate, too. The papacy had issued crusading indulgences on many occasions during its own struggles against both political enemies and against heretical groups such as the Hussites of Bohemia. The main threat to Christendom by this time, however, was from the Ottoman Turks, who, as Judith Herrin relates, captured Constantinople in 1453. Numerous efforts were made to draw together the leaders of the Latin West, but the growing power of nation states and their increasingly engrained conflicts, exemplified by the Hundred Years' War, meant that there was little appetite for the kind of Europe-wide response that had been seen in 1187, for example. Nigel Saul outlines this period of crusading history in his article.
There are many prominent texts to study the history of English Literature and understand its different literary periods and historical timeline. Here are some of the best History of English Literature Books: